Electric Mobility

Making the move to electric mobility requires a carefully planned strategy that envisions the merging of the transportation and energy sectors and re-envisions relationships between people and vehicles.

It will need an ecosystem approach that is relevant to the local context, with policymakers, regulators and other stakeholders identifying the technologies and approaches that best fit the Indian scenario. Additionally, a new industrial ecosystem is currently underway – unravelling opportunities for economic resilience, resource efficiency, innovation and R&D. With the diffusion of electric vehicle technology in India, upcoming and established firms have begun launching new products, services and business models to increase their competitiveness.

Electric mobility is often considered as a mere change in fuel source within existing transportation systems. Yet, the opportunity is far greater, provided barriers to mass electric vehicle adoption (e.g. capital cost, vehicle range and access to charging infrastructure) are actively resolved. In addition, the intrinsic connections between electric transportation and the energy sector offer unique opportunities to leverage the ongoing clean energy transition in India.


Photo by: Ather Energy

Tracking India’s industrial evolution using a four-dimensional framework of competitiveness. View our paper here. Photo by Ather Energy


A Review of State Government Policies for Electric Mobility

WRI India’s Electric Mobility Program has produced an in-depth review of Electric Vehicle policies proposed by 12 states. Most of these policies were rolled out between 2017 and 2020, with two broad goals: To hasten EV adoption and to increase investments in the state. The report includes recommendations, from policy to implementation, by considering three broad requirements:

  • Consumer demand incentives: These support the early market development of electric vehicles — either as purchase or operational incentives — with the former defraying the higher upfront costs of EVs and the latter encouraging on-road EV usage
  • Charging infrastructure incentives: A robust network of EV charging infrastructure reassures consumers. State incentives include a mix of financial incentives, spatial planning, and regulatory frameworks to support the deployment and integration of EV charging.
  • Industry incentives: Industry incentives are aimed at vehicle manufacturers, battery producers, and ancillary companies. Incentives are provided as capital and infrastructure subsidies, as well as human resource and research development.


WRI India's Electric Mobility program offers technical assistance and capacity building while facilitating conversations between public and private stakeholders to get a broader, yet nuanced, understanding of the challenges that come with the transition to electric buses. Our key areas of work in this sector are:

  • Our research Procurement of Electric Buses: Insights from Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Analysis provides an understanding of the pressure points faced by public agencies in procurement through the lens of our Total Cost of Ownership EValuator. The document will help stakeholders to anticipate and mitigate product-risk, operations-risk, revenue-risk, and technology-risk of operating electric buses.
  • Evaluating different procurement models and analysing existing practices to help decision makers optimise terms to diversify risks and reduce the resource burden.
  • Studying the functional divergence of ICE and electric buses and helping public bus agencies structure route planning for electric bus deployment.
  • Developing frameworks to optimise battery and charging Infrastructure by assessing different electric bus technologies.
  • Creating a robust comparison of cost components and earnings of electric and ICE buses to assess viability gap funding in order to sustain the shift to clean transport.
EV TCO Evaluator


WRI India’s Electric Mobility Program is pursuing three lines of work that form the basis of our policy work with decision makers in state and central government, industry, and academia -

  • Tracking industrial evolution through a ‘Competitiveness’ framework: Our new paper tracks the strategic moves of firms – in particular how they are expanding and diversifying to gain a competitive advantage.
  • Helping create a robust and resilient EV value chain: Our market sizing exercise estimates the potential growth across various upstream and downstream segments in the EV ecosystem - i.e value chain, charging infrastructure and batteries.
  • Fostering an appropriately-skilled and inclusive ‘Human Capital’: We are studying new employment opportunities as well as jobs that are becoming obsolete to enable states to create a viable talent pool and ensure a just transition in the labor market.
EV TCO Evaluator


Access our TCO EValuator that allows you to compare and contrast the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of electric two-wheelers, three-wheelers, cars and buses, as well as light commercial freight vehicles (LCFV), medium commercial freight vehicles (MCFV) and heavy commercial freight vehicles (HCFV) against their internal combustion engine (ICE) counterparts.

  • The TCO EValuator takes into account the various cost components and usage details of a vehicle during the period of utilization and provides you with a TCO/ km for acquiring and using the vehicle.
  • You can input capital and operations costs in the sheet (in various currencies and measurement systems) to determine the effect of various components on the TCO of a vehicle.

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